# Roboschool simulations training with stable baselines on AWS SageMaker RL

## Introductions

Roboschool is an open source physics simulator that is commonly used to train RL policies for robotic systems. Roboschool defines a variety of Gym environments that correspond to different robotics problems. One of them is HalfCheetah which is a two-legged robot, restricted to a vertical plane, meaning it can only run forward or backward.

In this notebook example, we will make HalfCheetah learn to walk using the stable-baselines a set of improved implementations of Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms based on OpenAI Baselines.

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roboschool_problem = "half-cheetah"


## Pre-requisites

### Imports

To get started, we’ll import the Python libraries we need, set up the environment with a few prerequisites for permissions and configurations.

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import sagemaker
import boto3
import sys
import os
import subprocess
from IPython.display import HTML
import time
from time import gmtime, strftime

sys.path.append("common")
from misc import get_execution_role, wait_for_s3_object
from docker_utils import build_and_push_docker_image
from sagemaker.rl import RLEstimator


### Setup S3 bucket

Set up the linkage and authentication to the S3 bucket that you want to use for checkpoint and the metadata.

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sage_session = sagemaker.session.Session()
s3_bucket = sage_session.default_bucket()
s3_output_path = "s3://{}/".format(s3_bucket)
print("S3 bucket path: {}".format(s3_output_path))


### Define Variables

We define variables such as the job prefix for the training jobs and the image path for the container (only when this is BYOC).

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# create a descriptive job name
job_name_prefix = "rl-roboschool-" + roboschool_problem


### Configure where training happens

You can train your RL training jobs using the SageMaker notebook instance or local notebook instance. In both of these scenarios, you can run the following in either local or SageMaker modes. The local mode uses the SageMaker Python SDK to run your code in a local container before deploying to SageMaker. This can speed up iterative testing and debugging while using the same familiar Python SDK interface. You just need to set local_mode = True.

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# run in local_mode on this machine, or as a SageMaker TrainingJob?
local_mode = False

if local_mode:
instance_type = "local"
else:
# If on SageMaker, pick the instance type
instance_type = "ml.c4.xlarge"


### Create an IAM role

Either get the execution role when running from a SageMaker notebook instance role = sagemaker.get_execution_role() or, when running from local notebook instance, use utils method role = get_execution_role() to create an execution role.

[ ]:

try:
role = sagemaker.get_execution_role()
except:
role = get_execution_role()
print("Using IAM role arn: {}".format(role))


### Install docker for local mode

In order to work in local mode, you need to have docker installed. When running from you local machine, please make sure that you have docker and docker-compose (for local CPU machines) and nvidia-docker (for local GPU machines) installed. Alternatively, when running from a SageMaker notebook instance, you can simply run the following script to install dependenceis.

Note, you can only run a single local notebook at one time.

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# only run from SageMaker notebook instance
if local_mode:
!/bin/bash ./common/setup.sh


## Build docker container

We must build a custom docker container with Roboschool installed. This takes care of everything:

1. Fetching base container image

2. Installing Roboschool and its dependencies

3. Installing stable-baselines and its dependencies such as OpenMPI, etc.

This step can take a long time if you are running on a machine with a slow internet connection. If your notebook instance is in SageMaker or EC2 it should take 3-10 minutes depending on the instance type.

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%%time

cpu_or_gpu = "gpu" if instance_type.startswith("ml.p") else "cpu"
repository_short_name = "sagemaker-roboschool-stablebaselines-%s" % cpu_or_gpu
docker_build_args = {
"AWS_REGION": boto3.Session().region_name,
}
custom_image_name = build_and_push_docker_image(repository_short_name, build_args=docker_build_args)
print("Using ECR image %s" % custom_image_name)


## Write the Training Code

The presets that configure the RL training jobs are defined in the preset-half-cheetah.py in the ./src directory. Using the preset file, you can define agent parameters to select the specific agent algorithm. You can also set the environment parameters, define the schedule and visualization parameters, and define the graph manager. The schedule presets will define following hyper-parameters for PPO1 training: * num_timesteps: (int) Number of training steps - Preset: 1e4 * timesteps_per_actorbatch – (int) timesteps per actor per update - Preset: 2048 * clip_param – (float) clipping parameter epsilon - Preset: 0.2 * entcoeff – (float) the entropy loss weight - Preset: 0.0 * optim_epochs – (float) the optimizer’s number of epochs - Preset: 10 * optim_stepsize – (float) the optimizer’s stepsize - Preset: 3e-4 * optim_batchsize – (int) the optimizer’s the batch size - Preset: 64 * gamma – (float) discount factor - Preset: 0.99 * lam – (float) advantage estimation - Preset: 0.95 * schedule – (str) The type of scheduler for the learning rate update (‘linear’, ‘constant’, ‘double_linear_con’, ‘middle_drop’ or ‘double_middle_drop’) - Preset: linear * verbose – (int) the verbosity level: 0 none, 1 training information, 2 tensorflow debug - Preset: 1

You can refer the complete list of args and documentation for PPO1 algorithm here: https://stable-baselines.readthedocs.io/en/master/modules/ppo1.html

These can be overridden at runtime by specifying the RLSTABLEBASELINES_PRESET hyperparameter. Additionally, it can be used to define custom hyperparameters.

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!pygmentize src/preset-{roboschool_problem}.py


The training code is in the file train-coach.py which is also the ./src directory.

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!pygmentize src/train_stable_baselines.py


## Train the RL model using the Python SDK Script mode

If you are using local mode, the training will run on the notebook instance. When using SageMaker for training, you can select a GPU or CPU instance. The RLEstimator is used for training RL jobs.

1. Specify the source directory where the environment, presets and training code is uploaded.

2. Specify the entry point as the training code

3. Specify the choice of RL toolkit and framework. This automatically resolves to the ECR path for the RL Container.

4. Define the training parameters such as the instance count, job name, S3 path for output and job name.

5. Specify the hyperparameters for the RL agent algorithm. The RLSTABLEBASELINES_PRESET can be used to specify the RL agent algorithm you want to use.

6. Define the metrics definitions that you are interested in capturing in your logs. These can also be visualized in CloudWatch and SageMaker Notebooks.

Please note all the configured preset parameters in preset-half-cheetah.py can be overriden by specifying the overriden value in hyperparameters block.

Note: For MPI based jobs, local mode is only supported for single instance jobs. Please use instance_type as 1 if using local mode.

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%%time

estimator = RLEstimator(
entry_point="train_stable_baselines.py",
source_dir="src",
dependencies=["common/sagemaker_rl"],
image_uri=custom_image_name,
role=role,
instance_type=instance_type,
instance_count=2,
output_path=s3_output_path,
base_job_name=job_name_prefix,
hyperparameters={
"RLSTABLEBASELINES_PRESET": "preset-{}.py".format(roboschool_problem),
"num_timesteps": 1e4,
"instance_type": instance_type,
},
metric_definitions=[
{
"Name": "EpisodesLengthMean",
"Regex": "$.*,.*$\<stdout\>\:\| *EpLenMean *\| *([-+]?[0-9]*\.?[0-9]*) *\|",
},
{
"Name": "EpisodesRewardMean",
"Regex": "$.*,.*$\<stdout\>\:\| *EpRewMean *\| *([-+]?[0-9]*\.?[0-9]*) *\|",
},
{
"Name": "EpisodesSoFar",
"Regex": "$.*,.*$\<stdout\>\:\| *EpisodesSoFar *\| *([-+]?[0-9]*\.?[0-9]*) *\|",
},
],
)

estimator.fit(wait=True)


## Visualization

RL training can take a long time. So while it’s running there are a variety of ways we can track progress of the running training job. Some intermediate output gets saved to S3 during training, so we’ll set up to capture that.

### Fetch videos of training rollouts

Videos of certain rollouts get written to S3 during training. Here we fetch all that are available, and render the last one.

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job_name = estimator.latest_training_job.job_name
print("Training job: %s" % job_name)

s3_url = "s3://{}/{}".format(s3_bucket, job_name)

if local_mode:
output_tar_key = "{}/output.tar.gz".format(job_name)
else:
output_tar_key = "{}/output/output.tar.gz".format(job_name)

intermediate_folder_key = "{}/output/intermediate".format(job_name)
output_url = "s3://{}/{}".format(s3_bucket, output_tar_key)
intermediate_url = "s3://{}/{}".format(s3_bucket, intermediate_folder_key)

print("S3 job path: {}".format(s3_url))
print("Output.tar.gz location: {}".format(output_url))
print("Intermediate folder path: {}".format(intermediate_url))

tmp_dir = "/tmp/{}".format(job_name)
os.system("mkdir {}".format(tmp_dir))
print("Create local folder {}".format(tmp_dir))
wait_for_s3_object(s3_bucket, intermediate_folder_key, tmp_dir)


### RL output video

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import io
import base64

encoded = base64.b64encode(video)
HTML(
data="""<video alt="test" controls>
<source src="data:video/mp4;base64,{0}" type="video/mp4" />
</video>""".format(
encoded.decode("ascii")
)
)


### Example of trained walking HalfCheetah

This is the output of the training job triggered bu above code, with following additional configurations: * train_instance_count: 10 * train_instance_type: ml.c4.xlarge * num_timesteps: 1e7

It took 40 min to train the model with the above settings. You can have similar output with lesser instances and more training duration.

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import io
import base64